Thank you for reading my posts, I have previously posted on "Is Space exploration actually worth the cost"and have written a few risks in space exploration and as the tittle suggests this is a continuation of the contributing factors of space exploration that might be risky and on my previous post i showed how a life capapble planet(Mars) has its risks and this will be about the whole interface of space.
Space exploration is a risky business. Space is a vacuum and humans cannot exist in a vacuum. This means that we have to create crafts and suits which provide an environment where humans can survive.
The risks involved with space exploration include:
.micrometeorites – danger from impact damage (to spacecraft and to astronauts during spacewalks)
.solar flares and radiation – danger from ionising radiations
.no atmosphere – we need air to breathe
.space debris – danger from impact damage
The main danger in space comes from temperature. It can vary from being extremely cold (in shadow, not in line of sight of the sun -150 C) to very hot (in line of sight of the sun +120C). The suits and craft are designed to keep the environment at the temperature that we can live in – about 20C. So excellent cooling and heating systems are required in space.According to thr BBC the link is:https://www.bbc.co.uk/bitesize/guides/zqm4fcw/revision/7
If astronauts are in orbit then they are usually travelling very fast. The International Space Station orbits the Earth about 12-15 times a day. In space, with no air, this is not a major problem in terms of air friction.However, on returning to Earth, the spacecraft will re-enter the atmosphere. While the air itself may not seem dense, travelling very fast through air creates very high frictional forces generating extremely high temperatures.To protect astronauts from these high temperatures, the spacecraft must be able to:absorb a certain amount of heat energy.radiate heat energy back into the atmosphere.Spacecraft have heatproof tiles on the underside. These protect the occupants from the high temperatures and prevent the spacecraft from being destroyed on re-entry. Re-entry temperatures can reach as high as 1,650C.There are also the risks of space travel which is one major factor,see if one is not able to travel and theyre very qualified there is no point exploring for sustanable living areas.Ask most people about the dangers of space, and major emergencies will come to mind: getting lost, vehicle malfunction, being hit by meteorites.
Astronaut Chris Hadfield, who spent time on the International Space Station (ISS), says that being hit by a meteorite is not uncommon. It is a reminder, he says in a video for the BBC, that "you're actually in an aluminum bubble."And far away from home.Spacecrafts must be made of materials that can operate in microgravity while in space, but that can also withstand the 3G acceleration needed to take off in the first place.They need protection against meteorites, solar winds and man-made debris from previous human ventures. The ISS, traveling at almost 17,000 miles per hour, is susceptible even to dust-sized grains.
A puncture to the body of a spacecraft would cause the vacuum outside to suck everything and everyone out.The aluminum shell of each module of the ISS is covered with a 10-inch thick "blanket" consisting of layers of Kevlar, ceramic fabrics and other advanced materials. Kevlar is the material used in bulletproof vests.But even if 100% vehicle safety could be guaranteed, what about the day-to-day pressures on the human body? What hazards do space travelers face, and how can they be overcome?Gravity affects blood circulation and the musculoskeletal system, among other things. According to Richard Setlow, in an article published by the European Molecular Biology Organization (EMBO)(heres the link:http://www.embo.org/), the effects of microgravity could prevent astronauts, and their bodies, from performing necessary functions in space.On Earth, our cardiovascular system is designed to pump blood away from the feet and distribute it to every part of the body.In space, without gravity to draw it down, the system is less effective. The blood moves up toward the chest and the head, making the face puffy and increasing the risk of high blood pressure. As the delivery of oxygen becomes less efficient, organ function can be hampered. There is an increased risk of cardiac arrhythmia and atrophy(An arrhythmia describes an irregular heartbeat - the heart may beat too fast, too slowly, too early, or irregularly. ... Many heart arrhythmias are harmless; however, if they are particularly abnormal, or result from a weak or damaged heart, arrhythmias can cause serious and even potentially fatal symptoms.)
Finally, one of the most deadliest is SPACE FUNGUS and heres why:We’ve known since the 1960s that some microorganisms can survive the perils of space, including microgravity, extreme temperatures, and radiation. And given that our best efforts to wipe space vessels clean of microorganisms often fails, exposure to these potentially pathogenic organisms is unavoidable. Now, a new study supports that claim. In October, researchers found that the airborne fungus Aspergillus fumigatus, the most common cause of invasive fungal infection in humans, grows just as well on the ISS as it does on Earth. And if fumigatus lives just fine in space, the researchers write, so could many other, more lethal pathogens. The researchers say this calls for a better detection and cleaning policy to avoid sending a ship full of astronauts into the dangers of deep space, only to have them killed by an earthly pathogen.
There we have it these are some of the risks for health and safety in space!
Thanks for reading