I am honoured and priviledged to give out my speech on the topic; extreme weather, the best ways to respond to extreme weather and its impact.
I will begin by explaining what Extreme weather is. Extreme weather is when a weather event is significantly different from the average weather pattern. Examples of extreme weather; wildfire, thunderstorm, tornadoes, waterspout and hurricanes. But the most common extreme weather event these days are; flood, heatwaves, hurricanes and violent storms.
Extreme weather has great effects on human lives, and buisnesses at large. My country is no exception to the negative impact. According to the 12 edition of the Germanwatch, 4 out of the 10 most impacted countries globally are African with Ghana ranking 8th along side Madagascar. Ghana is very vulnerable to climate change. This is largely due to its exposure to the various impacts with drought, floods and sea erosion as the main drivers. Northern parts of Ghana is associated with severe drought and flooding, which leads up to reduced agricultural productivity, loss of property and investment. In the southern part, sea level rise and other extreme weather conditions lead to loss of lives, displaced communities and loss of economic activities, especially fishing. Germanwatch organization has recently published its global climate risk index 2019.
My country was hit by a chronic drought in the year 1981-1983 in the Northern part of Ghana. In my country, recorded temperatures had risen about 1 degree celcuis over the last 40 years of the twentieth century, whiles rain fall decreased by approximately 20% and 30% respectively. The effects or impacts of this chronic drought experienced in my country were; food shortage(cereal production was affected, loss of fertiliy in the ground as a result of poor food production), water shortage(no rain fall as a result of dry land) and many Ghanaians were laid off from their jobs.
The responses that were given to this event were; implementing a drought early warning system in Ghana and the NADMO (National Disaster Management Organaization) supplied food relief to individuals living in or within affected communities.
In my country's case the response that was best was implementing a drought early warning system. This is because, when the government is not warned of any upcoming drought, then the citizens will have to suffer the effect if they have not prepared for any drought and the government will also have to provide essential items for those affected by the drougt. The citizens can take on the responsibility of preventing a drought from happening by; avoiding flushing the toilet unnecessarily, taking a short shower instead of baths, avoiding letting the water flow when brushing your teeth, placing a bucket in the shower to get excess water to water gardens and to water gardens early in the morning so that less water evaporate.
The government can take on the following actions in preventing a drought; making laws against the cutting down of trees and investing in a weather based irrigation controller. I think this would work because when laws are made against the cutting down of trees, it would help prevent rivers, lagoons from drying up by given shade over them. And also trees provide oxygen and homes for most animals such as; insects, arachnids, amphibians,reptiles, birds and tree kangaroo so when these trees are cutted down then all these animals will surely become homeless and cause problems for humans. And i think investing in weather based irrigation controller would work because this controller has sensors that delivers water based on the amount of moisture in the soil and sophisticated controllers that read real-time conditions and deliver just enough water to the plant healthy. Government should focus on the preventative actions to take in other to prevent the citizen from facing the effects of drought.
I would like the world to look out for the future generations; by controlling air pollution in other not to create diseases like asthma for the future generations and avoid deforestation which can lead to overheating of waterbodies which would lead can to the spread of infectious diseases such as dengue fever and cholera. These actions are needed now in other to prevent it from being serious or severe in the future which could not be treated by anyone.