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International Responsibility:

Within this issue, we will be discussing ‘Climate change.’ This is a fantastic topic to debate on, as it has so many aspects to it. In this essay, we will be talking about the role of accountability within countries that produce large amounts of pollution. Today, we will be using Pakistan and China as examples. We will also be considering;

  • Polluted versus Polluting.
  • Definitions
  • The role of the government within these countries
  • One of the many solutions to this; policing polluting countries.
  • The historical reparations of the countries which should, perhaps, be contemplated.
  • Initiating a carbon tax (either international or only for polluting countries.)
  • A summary.

Throughout this essay, there may be some phrases or words that you may question;

-Renewable= An item that can be reused as there may be a lot of it supplied.

-Regulation= force of law.

-Counter-act= Something attempting to even out something else.

-EU- The European Union. (The unity of all European countries)

Polluting versus Polluted; To begin with, there is a major difference between polluting and polluted. When a country is polluted, it has already caused damage to, both, the environment and itself. However, a solution may come later, but if the country has high amounts of pollution, it would be difficult to change it. On the other hand, polluting means adding more pollution to somewhere, either the environment or itself. If a country is polluting somewhere, it is continuing to add fossil fuels and other harmful additions to the planet. An example of a polluting country is China, whereas a polluted country is Pakistan.

Government of China; Secondly, many people argue that the country depends on the government/ monarchy to make the decisions. Many critics also suggest that if the government implements new rules and regulations, then the country may be inspired to change. A study suggests that the government of China has attempted to acknowledge the fact that climate change is having a major effect on our planet. In 2017, a survey took place and at least 90% of the population said that ‘climate change is happening’ and 66% of people believed that it is ‘caused by human activities.’ (Statistics from https://www.chinadialogue.net/article/show/single/en/10831-Does-the-Chinese-public-care-about-climate-change-) Within China, there have been many new laws that have been put in place in order to lower emission gases and promote a carbon-free lifestyle. Most of the Chinese public want to change their lifestyles to help the environment, even if it is a small change. (E.g. using public transport and using solar power.) Due to the government and their own will, they would also pay for climate-friendly products such as wind- powered electricity (renewable energy), zero-waste products etc. The state council may have inspired people to have a positive mindset, but it may be that they can see the impact climate change has and they want to change. In this situation, the government and the public agree.

Government of Pakistan; The prime minister, furthermore, suggested that he wanted to change the lifestyle of Pakistan. In 2018, Imran Khan said that he would like to plant (at least) ‘10 billon trees.’ His main aim was to counter-act the amount of fossil fuel emissions that are currently polluting our air. Another politician suggested that he noticed that Pakistan was facing the impacts of climate change and that they need to make improvement, their main focus. The prime minister and his team want to (also) build water dams and hydraulic powered sources to create energy. If they resorted to solar, wind and water sources; the amount of gas within the atmosphere would decrease, thus making their country less polluted. The public of Pakistan, however, have a different approach. 65% of the public do not understand what climate change is, 11% believe that the media represents climate change quite well. Lastly, 72% of the public have little confidence in the government achieving the things they need to achieve. Many studies suggest that if the prime minister communicated more with his public, they may become more educated and supportive of his expectations. If they know about climate change and they learn the impacts; they may feel inclined to make a difference (which would be better for everyone in Pakistan)

Policing polluting countries; Many critics argue that most of our air quality and our pollution prevention comes from the EU. Throughout countries, there have been many rules that have been put in place (emission zones, etc.) But many sources question, are we tackling the problems within countries, correctly? Should we focus on polluting countries more? The answer to that is perhaps. If we focus on a country which is creating the most pollution but manage to reduce it, it could be beneficial for all. Also, if we attempted to focus on polluting countries more, others may become inspired to change once they see what they can get to.

Initiating a carbon tax; Furthermore, researchers have suggested that it would be better (environmentally) if we put a carbon tax on some of the carbon generating sources. For example, on the Dartford bridge there is a carbon tax for cars which are not electric. If applied the same rules in other cities, it could help. We could also put a carbon tax on some of the items within the local warehouses. For example, if we put a carbon tax on some of the gas sources in our homes. (It would be a small tax, but it may help.) -This also may inspire people to resort to electrical heating.

Historical reparations; Imran Khan, in 2015, critiqued a local government for giving them a small funding for solutions to climate change. He made a speech about industries and factories and how they needed to supply money for Pakistan, after all they were doing for them. (The historical pollution was caused by other nations.) Many studies question if, countries should be compensated for all that they have done (relating to industries and the economy) or if they should be compensated based on their historical background.

Summary; In this essay, we have talked about responsibility with the public and with the government, historical reparations, initiating a carbon tax and policing polluting countries. These (China and Pakistan) are two examples of polluting and polluted countries however there are many more which have an impact too. To conclude, I would like to thank you all for reading and I hope you enjoyed it! Please feel free to leave your comments down below!

Here are the websites I have found my statistics and information from: Please feel free to read these:

https://www.chinadialogue.net/article/show/single/en/10831-Does-the-Chinese-public-care-about-climate-change- https://www.activesustainability.com/environment/top-5-most-polluting-countries/ http://worldpopulationreview.com/countries/most-polluted-countries/ https://www.climatechangenews.com/2018/07/27/imran-khan-promises-greener-future-pakistan/ https://www.bbc.co.uk/climateasia/explore-countries/pakistan https://dearman.co.uk/professional-engineering-policing-pollution/

Comments (8)

  • Michael-Faraday-logo-250x250.jpg busy_song | Michael Faraday School
    19 Jun 2019

    Another subject to take into consideration that is constantly happening globally and affecting millions is fossil fuel (petroleum or oil) industries. The number one exported product in the world and in 2017, was 4.3% of the world’s exported products. Oil industries such as Saudi Arabia, Russia, Iraq, Canada, United Arab Emirates, Iran, Kuwait, Nigeria, Angola and Kazakhstan are producing lots of oil and creating the massive oil market. This allows countries who do not have that much oil (like the USA, Europe, the UK and rest of the world) to be able to purchase it and burn it to create greenhouse gases. The oil marketing countries profit after with the oil. Billions of wasted money is spent on shipping the oil back and forth; last year, crude oil shipments in aggregate were worth $841.1 billion (£668.1235795 billion). All the countries that I have mentioned is two thirds of the world’s oil imports!

    Saudi Arabia was responsible for 15.9% of global oil exports in 2017, totalling $133.6 billion in value. In 2017, Russia's oil exports accounted for 11.1% of global oil exports, exceeding a value of $93 billion. On the same year, Iraq exported $61.5 billion worth of the oil, which accounts for 7.3% of global exports. Canada exported $54 billion worth of the products; it is estimated that Canada has more than 10% of the world's oil reserves. UAE exported 5.9% of the world's total oil exports, accounting for $49.3 billion. Iran is sixth on the list in 2017, exporting $40.1 billion worth of oil for a share of 4.8% of the global total. That country exported $38.2 billion worth of oil, or 4.5% of the world's total. Nigeria exported 3.9% of the world's total in 2017 with a value of $33 billion. About 3.6% of the world's 2017 oil exports came from Angola, and they had a value of $30.5 billion. The country was responsible for 3.2% of the world's oil exports, worth about $26.6 billion. These worrying statistics show that the oil market is increasing but Global Warming is becoming more of a hazard.

    This means that only because of the oil marketing in countries, we are using more oil and creating toxic fumes. Even though they are not the actual people who are burning the oil to produce greenhouse gases, they are still selling it to countries who treasure it and will definitely burn it and that is a main part of the Global Warming solution. Therefore, they are the ones (as well as the USA, Europe and the UK) that are causing Climate Change since they are selling it to countries that will burn it up, which is causing Global Warming.

    For oil marketing, we need to prevent countries like Europe, USA and the UK (as well as the whole world) from purchasing the oil from countries like Russia, Saudi Arabia and Canada in order to stop greenhouse gases being released. To prevent it, we need to completely stop the oil market globally and have checks and searches of what our are imports and exports. However, if we completely stop oil markets, then we will have no factories, energy, cars and many more things. Therefore, I believe that we should find alternative ways for energy and to have cleaner energy sources. Possible alternatives for cleaner and non-polluting energy could be:

    1) Water power

    Water power is source of cleaner energy that with the fast flowing water rushing at high speed, with fast speed turbines and reservoirs, you can create and capture the energy that is non-polluting and environmentally friendly. Already, 10% of the USA’s energy is made from water power (hydroelectric power).

    2) Wind power

    Wind power is source of cleaner energy that with wind turbines and wind mills that spin extremely fast in the air, you can also create another source of non-polluting energy. To create this energy, you do not need to use any motors or turbines to make the energy; you can use the power of the wind to spin the turbines around and around.

    3) Solar Power

    Solar power is a source of cleaner energy that with Solar panels, you can (on a sunny day) put the panels outside and the panels will absorb the sun’s energy in order to make non-polluting energy as well.

    With these alternatives, we can still have what we have nowadays but with different ways of the energy being created.
    We need to pressurise the oil market to use more inexpensive, non-polluting and environmentally friendly ways of energy being created. All of the countries will want the alternative energy sources and once it happens, then the oil market will start to decrease gradually and this will prevent greenhouse gases being released into the atmosphere.

    https://www.investopedia.com/articles/company-insights/082316/worlds-top-10-oil-exporters.asp
    https://www.renewableenergyworld.com/solar-energy.html

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  • Morley-Newlands-logo-250x250.jpg fierce_memory | Morley Newlands Academy
    21 Jun 2019

    I agree with you but what if you could not be able to afford an electric vehicle or the carbon tax so you might be late for your job or school.

    Reply to this comment
    1. Boutcher-logo-250x250.jpg hopeful_information | Boutcher C of E Primary School
      fierce_memory's comment 19 Jul 2019

      I would disagree with you on that. As an effort to combat the UK’s climate problems, 10 Downing St. have introduced a grant of £4500 to anyone buying electric vehicles. This makes them around the same price as petrol/diesel equivalents. Also, with electric vehicles, there is no carbon tax or congestion charge. Because electric cars are much faster at acceleration, should you have to travel across a motorway to get to school/work, you may well get there more quickly. Also, if your work is closer than that, see also bicycle. It produces no emissions, are much faster than walking, and is much cheaper than a car.

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  • Morley-Newlands-logo-250x250.jpg vivacious_tradition | Morley Newlands Academy
    17 Jul 2019

    what are they trying to do

    Reply to this comment
  • Boutcher-logo-250x250.jpg content_lemon | Boutcher C of E Primary School
    26 Jul 2019

    A very informative post. Well done!

    Reply to this comment
  • BNC-school-logo.jpg methodical_duck | BNC Example Posts
    08 Aug 2019

    China may be one of the worst polluters but their factories make products for lots of other countries. So should China be held responsible or should people in those countries take responsibility too?

    Reply to this comment
  • Beckers Green Primary School genuine_trombone | Beckers Green Primary School
    19 Sep 2019

    I believe we should save the earth before it's too late and we die with it

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